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|  【井下作業】壓井液的種類及選擇方法

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【井下作業】壓井液的種類及選擇方法

發布日期:2019-11-06 作者:333 點擊:

在作業過程中,當井口敞開時,起出管柱后液面會降低,一旦液柱壓力低于地層壓力,勢必會造成地層流體侵入而誘發井噴事故,既有害地層,又不利于施工。解決這個問題有兩種方法,一是采用不壓井、不放噴井口控制裝置(油水井帶壓作業技術);另一種方法是利用設備從地面往井內注入密度適當的壓井液,使井筒中的液柱在井底造成的回壓與地層壓力相平衡,恢復和重建井內壓力平衡,這一過程稱為壓井。

YAJINGSHIKAOYAJINGYEZISHENDEJINGYEYALIYOUXIAODIKONGZHIDICENGLIUTIDEYALI,DICENGBUKEBIMIANDIYAOSHOUDAOYAJINGYEDEYINGXIANG,QIYINGXIANGCHENGDUHEYAJINGXIAOGUODEHAOHUAIQUJUEYUYAJINGYEYEZHUYALIYUDICENGYALIDEDUIBIGUANXIYIJIYAJINGYEBENSHENDEXINGZHI,SUOCAIYONGDEJIAZHONGJIZUIHAOSHINENGRONGYUGAIYAJINGYEDEZAITI。SUOYOURUJINGLIUTIYUDICENGYANXINGPEIWUXINGYIZHI。JINXINGXIUJINGZUOYESHICAIYONGDELIUTI,CHENGWEIXIUJINGYEHUOGONGZUOYE,QIZHONGBAOKUOYAJINGYE。


篮球比分YAJINGDEMUDESHIZANSHISHIJINGNEILIUTIZAIXIUJINGSHIGONGGUOCHENGZHONGBUYICHU,SHIXIANJINGKONGANQUANZUOYE。YAJINGYAOBAOHUYOUQICENG,YINGZUNSHOU“YAERBUPEN、YAERBULOU、YAERBUSI”SANXIANGYUANZE;TONGSHIBIXUCAIQUYIXIASIXIANGCHANCENGBAOHUCUOSHI;YISHIXUANYONGYOUZHIYAJINGYE(RUWUGUXIANGYAJINGYE、KCLFANGPENGYAJINGYE);ERSHIDUIDICHAN、DIYAJINGKEYICAIQUBUYAJINGZUOYE,YANJINJIYAJINGZUOYE(TESHUQINGKUANGCHUWAI);SANSHIDIMIANSHENGYECHI、SHENGYEGUANGANJINGWUZAWU,DUIZUOYEBENGCHEJIGUANXIANYAOJINXINGQINGXI;SISHIJIAKUAISHIGONGSUDU,SUODUANZUOYEZHOUQI,WANGONGHOUJISHITOUCHAN。


一、壓井液的分類


MUQIAN,GEYOUQITIANXIANCHANGSHIYONGDEYAJINGYEYIBANYOUSANDALEIXING:JISHUIJIXINGYAJINGYE,RUXIUJINGNIJIANG(GAIXINGZHANJINGYE)、WUGUXIANGYANSHUIYAJINGYE、JUHEWUGUXIANGYANSHUIYAJINGYE;YOUJIXINGYAJINGYE,RUCHUNYOU、RUZHUANGYEDENG;QI、YEHUNHEXINGPAOMOYAJINGYE。PAOMOYAJINGYEYOUYETI(TONGCHANGWEISHUI)、BIAOMIANHUOXINGJIHEQITI(KONGQIHUODANQI)ZUCHENG,YONGYUDIYAYOUCENG,DANQICAOZUOFUZAXINGHECHENGBENSHOUPAOMOTIXIDETIAOJIANYUESHU。


二、壓井液應具備的功能


篮球比分(1)YUDICENGYANXINGXIANGPEIWU,YUDICENGLIUTIXIANGRONG,KEBAOCHIJINGTONGLIUTIWENDING。


(2)MIDUKEDIAO,YIBIANPINGHENGDICENGYALI。


(3)ZAIJINGXIAWENDUHEYALITIAOJIANXIAXINGZHIWENDING。


(4)LVSHILIANGSHAO。


(5)YOUYIDINGXIEDAIGUTIKELIDENENGLI。


三、壓井液選擇的原則


(1)YAJINGYEDEXINGNENGYINGMANZUBENJINGHEBENQUKUAIDIZHIYAOQIU。


(2)CAIYONGZHANJINGYEZUOWEIYAJINGYESHI,QIXINGNENGYINGYUDICENGPEIWU,MANZUBENJINGHEBENQUKUAIDIZHIYAOQIU。


(3)GENJUDICENGYALIDAXIAO、YOUQICHANLIANG、LVSHIGAODIXUANZEHESHIDEYAJINGYEMIDU。


(4)JINLIANGXUANYONGDIGUXIANGYAJINGYEHUOWUGUXIANGYAJINGYE,YIMIANSUNHAIDICENGHEDUSAISHEKONGKONGYAN。


(5)XUANFUXINGNENGDADAOJIANGSHAZIHUOYANXIEXIEDAIDAODIMIANDEYAOQIU。


篮球比分(6)JIAGEYINGBIANYI,DIAOPEI、SHIYONGFANGBIAN。


四、壓井液類型的選擇方法


GENJUBUTONGZUOYENEIRONGYUSHIGONGMUDEHEYAOQIU,XUANZEBUTONGLEIXINGDEYAJINGYE:


篮球比分(1)DUITANJINGHEPUTONGSHIYOUJING,YOUCHANYEXINGZHIYAOQIUDEXUANYONGWUGUXIANGYAJINGYE、XIUJINGNIJIANGHUODANSHUIDENG。


(2)DAXIUZUOYEDEFENGDU、ERCIGUJING、ZHUSHUINISAIDENGXUANYONGXIUJINGNIJIANG、WUGUXIANGYAJINGYEHUOQINGSHUIDENG。


篮球比分(3)SHISHICUOSHIZUOYEHEBUFENDAXIUDEDALAOJIEKADENGSHIGONGJINGXUANYONGDIGUXIANGHUOWUGUXIANGYAJINGYE。


XIAMIANJIANYAOJIESHAOXIUJINGNIJIANG、WUGUXIANGYANSHUIYAJINGYEHEJUHEWUGUXIANGYANSHUIYAJINGYEDEYIXIEXINGNENGYAOQIU、MIDUFANWEIYIJIDUIYOUQICENGDEYINGXIANGDENGNEIRONG。


(一)、修井泥漿


篮球比分ZAIJINGXIAZUOYESHIGONGZHONG,XIUJINGNIJIANGSHICHANGYONGDEYAJINGYEZHIYI,RUGAOYAYOUQIJINGDEZHUSHUINISAI、DUCENG、SHIYOU、CESHI、ZHAOCUAN、FENGCUAN、DAXIUDENG。


XIUJINGNIJIANGDEXINGNENGZHIBIAORUXIA:


篮球比分(1)XIUJINGNIJIANGNIANDU:ZHIXIUJINGNIJIANGLIUDONGSHIGUTIKELIZHIJIAN、GUTIKELIYUYETIZHIJIANYIJIYETINEIBUFENZIZHIJIANCHANSHENGDENEIMOCALI,YIZUZHIXIUJINGNIJIANGLIUDONGDEZONGHEXIAOYING。XIUJINGNIJIANGDENIANDUGUOGAOYIJIREWENDINGXINGCHA,DOUJIANGDUIGEXIANGJINGXIAZUOYEDAILABULIANGYINGXIANG。ZAIJINGXIAGAOWENZUOYONGXIA,XIUJINGNIJIANGXINGNENGBIANHUAI,CHOUHUAZENGNIAN,LIUDONGXINGCHA,CHANGCHANGZAOCHENGXUNHUANSHIBENGYAGUOGAO,DAOZHIZUOYESHIGONGSHIBAI。XIANCHANGCHANGYONGMASHILOUDOUNIANDUJICEDINGXIUJINGNIJIANGNIANDU。


篮球比分(2)XIUJINGNIJIANGMIDU:ZHIYIDINGTIJIXIUJINGNIJIANGDEZHONGLIANGYUTONGTIJI4℃DECHUNSHUIZHONGLIANGZHIBI。XIANCHANGCHANGYONGCELIANGXIUJINGNIJIANGMIDUDEYIQISHIXIUJINGNIJIANGMIDUJI。


篮球比分(3)XIUJINGNIJIANGSHISHUILIANGHENIBING:SHISHUISHIZHIXIUJINGNIJIANGZAIJINGXIAYINSHOUYEZHUYALIHEDICENGYALICHAZHIZUOYONGDEYINGXIANG,XIUJINGNIJIANGLVYESHENRUDICENGDEXIANXIANG。XIUJINGNIJIANGSHISHUIDUOSHAOCHENGWEISHISHUILIANG,QIJILIANGDANWEIWEImL。ZAIXIUJINGNIJIANGLVSHISHUIDETONGSHI,GUXIANGKELIJUJIXINGCHENGNIBING,QIJILIANGDANWEIWEImm。XIUJINGNIJIANGDESHISHUILIANGHENIBINGSHIZHIJIEYINGXIANGYOUCENGSHIFOUSHOUDAOSUNHAIDEZHONGYAOYINSU。


(4)XIUJINGNIJIANGQIELI:ZHIXIUJINGNIJIANGDEJIAOJIELI,JIXIUJINGNIJIANGXUANFUGUXIANGKELIDENENGLI。XIUJINGNIJIANGZHONGDEJIAOTILIZIYOUHUXIANGLIANJIEXINGCHENGWANGZHUANGJIEGOUDENENGLI,ZAIXIUJINGNIJIANGJINGZHISHI,SUIZHUSHIJIANDEYANCHANG,ZHEZHONGWANGZHUANGJIEGOUGENGJIALAOGU。DANDANGSHOUWAIBUJIXIELIDEZUOYONGHOU,ZHEZHONGWANGZHUANGJIEGOUZHUJIANBEIPOHUAI,YOUHUIFULIUDONGZHUANGTAI。XIUJINGNIJIANGCONGWANGZHUANGJIEGOUDEXINGCHENGDAOBEIPOHUAI,QIELIYESUIZHIBIANHUA。XIUJINGNIJIANGDECHUBIANXINGYONGQIELIDAXIAOLAIBIAOSHI,QIELIDANWEIWEImm/cm3。


篮球比分(5)HANSHALIANG:ZHIXIUJINGNIJIANGZHONGBUNENGTONGGUO200HAOSHAIZI(HUOZHIJINGDAYU0.074mm)DESHAZISUOZHANXIUJINGNIJIANGTIJIDEBAIFENSHU。


(6)JIAOTILVHECHENDIANLV:JIANG100mLDEXIUJINGNIJIANGZHURU100mLDEBOLILIANGTONGNEI,YONGBOLIBANGAISHANGJINGZHI24h,GUANCHALIANGTONGSHANGBUCHENGQINGYEDETIJI。RUGUOSHANGBUCHUXIANCHENGQINGYEWEI5mL,CIXIUJINGNIJIANGDEJIAOTILVWEI95%,CHENDIANLVWEI5%。TONGCHANGRENMENGUIDINGXIUJINGNIJIANGDEJIAOTILVYINGDAYU95%,CHENDIANLVYINGXIAOYU5%。


(7)WENDINGXING:JIANGXIUJINGNIJIANGZHURUWENDINGJIZHONG,JINGZHI24hHOU,FENBIECELIANGSHANGBU、XIABUDEXIUJINGNIJIANGMIDU,SHANGBU、XIABUMIDUDECHAZHICHENGWEIXIUJINGNIJIANGDEWENDINGXING。


(8)NAIWENXING:ZAISHENJINGZUOYEZHONG,XIUJINGNIJIANGDEKANGWENXINGNENGSHIYIGEZHONGYAOYINSU,WENDUTIGAONENGGAIBIANXIUJINGNIJIANGDEYEXIANGNIANDUBINGJIAKUAIXIUJINGNIJIANGZHONGDEHUAXUEFANYINGSUDU,SUOYIXIUJINGNIJIANGDEREWENDINGXINGSHIHENZHONGYAODETEXING,YINGZAISHINEITIQIANZUOXIANGGUANSHIYAN,QUEBAOXIUJINGNIJIANGZAIGAOWENXIADEXINGNENGWENDING。


(二)無固相鹽水壓井液


SHEKONGZUOYEZHONGCAIYONGJIAODUODESHIWUGUXIANGYANSHUIYAJINGYE,ZHEZHONGYAJINGYEYECHENGWEIJIEJINGDEYAJINGYE,YIBANHAN20%ZUOYOUDERONGJIEYANLEI,YOUYIZHONGHUODUOZHONGYANLEIHESHUIPEIZHIERCHENG,YOUDEHUANJIARUHUAXUECHULIJIYIZENGJIANIANDUHEJIANGDISHISHUILIANG。SHIDANGXUANPEIYANLEIKEYIDEDAOMANZUDABUFENDICENGTIAOJIANDEMIDU。QIFANGZHIDICENGSUNHAIDEJILISHI:YOUYUTABENSHENBUCUNZAIGUXIANG,SUOYIJIUBUHUIFASHENGXIANGXIUJINGNIJIANGNEIYANGJIADAIZHUGUXIANGKELIQINRUCHANCENGDEQINGKUANG;LINGWAI,QIZHONGRONGJIEDEWUJIYANLEIGAIBIANLETIXIZHONGDELIZIHUANJING,SHILIZIHUOXINGJIANGDI,ZHEYANGJISHIBUFENWUGUXIANGYAJINGYEQINRUCHANCENG,YEBUHUIYINQINIANTUPENGZHANGHEYUNYI,TASHIYIKAOQIBENSHENDEWUGUXIANGTEXINGHEQIZHONGRONGJIEYANLEIDEYIZHIXINGLAIFANGZHIDICENGDESUNHAI。


WUGUXIANGYANSHUIYAJINGYEDEZHONGLEIHENDUO,MIDUFANWEIYEJIAODA,YIBANWEI1.06-2.30g/cm3,YINERNENGMANZUDADUOSHUYOUQIJINGSHEKONGJIQITAZUOYEDEXUYAO。


1、無固相鹽水壓井液的種類


篮球比分(1)LVHUAJIAYANSHUI:ZUIDAMIDUWEI1.17g/cm3;


(2)LVHUANAYANSHUI:ZUIDAMIDUWEI1.20g/cm3;


(3)溴化鈉篮球比分鹽水:最大密度為1.50g/cm3;


篮球比分(4)LVHUAGAIYANSHUI:ZUIDAMIDUWEI1.39g/cm3;


篮球比分(5)XIUHUAGAIYANSHUI:ZUIDAMIDUWEI1.39-1.70g/cm3;


(6)XIUHUAGAI/LVHUAGAIYANSHUI:MIDUFANWEIWEI1.33-1.80g/cm3;


篮球比分(7)XIUHUAXIN/XIUHUAGAI/LVHUAGAIYANSHUI:MIDUFANWEIWEI1.80-2.30g/cm3。


2、無固相鹽水壓井液的特點


ZAIXUANZEHESHIDEYANSHUIYAJINGYESHI,CHULEKAOLVCHANCENGYANXINGDETEDIANWAI,HUANYAOLEJIEYANSHUIBENSHENDETEDIAN,LIRUYISHOUQIHOUYINGXIANG、XISHIXING、FUSHIXING、MIDUHEJIEJINGWENDUDENG。YANSHUIDEMIDUHEJIEJINGWENDUSHIPEIZHIYANSHUISHIYAOCANKAODELIANGGEHENZHONGYAODECANSHU。YANSHUIDEJIEJINGENDUHEMIDUDEYINGXIANGYINSUYIJIYANSHUIDEYIXIEQITATEDIANRUXIA:


(1)JIEJINGWENDU。


YANSHUIDEJIEJINGWENDUSHIZHIQIZHONGMOUYIZHONGYANSHUIDADAOBAOHESHIDEWENDU,RUONENGZAIDIYUCIWENDUDETIAOJIANXIASHIYONG,ZEHUIYOUGUXIANGYANLIXICHU。YOUCIKENENGCHANSHENGYIXILIEWENTI,RUYANLICHENJIZAIDIMIANSHEBEISHANGXINGCHENGDUSAI;YANSHUIMIDUXIAJIANG,GUXIANGDUO,KENENGSHIYANSHUISHIQUKEBENGXINGDENG。DUIYANSHUIDEJIEJINGWENDU,YINGGENJUBUTONGDIQU、BUTONGJIJIEJINXINGXUANZE。DUIYOULIANGZHONGHUOGENGDUOZHONGCHENGFENZUCHENGDEYANSHUI,QIZUFENDEXUANZEYINGGENJUCHENGBEN、YANSHUIJIEJINGWENDULAIKAOLV。LIRU,LVHUAGAIKEPEIZHIMIDUWEI1.40g/cm3ZUOYOUYETI,QIBAOHERONGYEZAI18℃KAISHIJIEJING,ERMIDUJIANGDIDAO1.36g/cm3SHIZAI3℃ZUOYOUKAISHIJIEJING。GUOWAIXUDUOGONGSIDOUYANFALEYIXIEMANZUMOUYIWENDUDEZUIJINGJIDEYAJINGYEPEIFANG。


(2)MIDU。


YOUYUYANSHUIDEMIDUSHOUWENDUHEYALIDEYINGXIANG,SUOYIWEILEMANZUYANSHUIYAJINGYEDEMIDUYAOQIU,BIXULEJIESHENJINGJINGXIAWENDUJIAOGAODETEDIAN,ZAIGAOWENHUANJINGXIAYANSHUIMIDUHUIYOUYUREPENGZHANGERXIAJIANG。YIBANLVHUANA、LVHUAJIA、LVHUAGAI(MIDUFANWEIWEI1.02-1.40g/cm3)YANSHUIDEMIDUSHOUWENDUYINGXIANGXIAO,ERZHONGYANSHUIRUXIUHUANA、XIUHUAGAIHEXIUHUAXINYANSHUIDEMIDUZESHOUWENDUYINGXIANGJIAODA。YINER,ZAISHIYONGSHI,ZAIDIMIANPEIZHIHUOXUANYONGDEYANSHUIMIDUYAOBIJINGXIASUOXUDEMIDUDAXIE,TONGSHIYINGKAOLVJINGXIADEGAOWENKEYIDIXIAOGAOWENDEPENGZHANGZUOYONG。


篮球比分LINGWAI,YOUXIEYANSHUIJUYOUFUSHIXING,YOUQISHIGAOMIDUDEXIUHUAXINYANSHUIDUIDIMIANSHEBEIHEJINGXIAGUANCAIFUSHIGENGYANZHONG,YIBANCAIQUDECUOSHISHIJIARUSUANHUANSHIJIZAIGANGCAIBIAOMIANXINGCHENGYICENGBAOHUMO,YIFANGZHIDIANHUAXUEFUSHI。YANSHUIHUANJUYOUXISHIXING,YICONGKONGQIZHONGXISHOUSHUIFENERSHIMIDUXIAJIANG,YINCIZUIHAOBUYAOLUTIANCHUCUN。


(3)JIANGSHISHUICHULI。


篮球比分WUGUXIANGYANSHUIYAJINGYERUOBUJINGGUOGAOJUHEWUCHULI,QINIANDUDI,ZHIBIDANSHUISHAOGAO,LVSHILIANGJIAODA,TEBIESHIZAIGAOSHENTOUDICENGRONGYIZAOCHENGLOUSHI,ZHEYANGBUDANLANGFEILEANGGUIDEYANSHUI,ERQIEHUANHUIZHIJIEYINQISHUISUO、RUHUAYEDUSAIYIJICHONGSHIJIAOJIESHUSONGDEKUANGWUWEILI,FASHENGWEILIYUNYIDENGSUNHAIDICENGDEXIANXIANG。YIBANKEYITONGGUOJIAQIANYIJIXIANWEISU(HEC)、SHENGWUJUHEWU(XC)、GUAJIAODENGLAITIGAOYANSHUINIANDU,YIJIANGDIYANSHUISHISHUILIANGBINGFANGZHIYANSHUILOUSHI。


(三)聚合物固相鹽水壓井液


JUHEWUGUXIANGYANSHUIYAJINGYESHIYIJUHEWUDAITINIANTUERCHANSHENGSHIDANGNIANDU、QIELIJILVSHILIANG,TONGSHIHUANGUIDINGCAIYONGGEZHONGLEIXINGDEGUXIANGZUOWEIQIAODUJI,YIFANGZHIWUGUXIANGYETIDALIANGLOURUYOUCENG,QIAODUJIYINGSHIKEYISUANRONG、SHUIRONGHUOYOURONGDE。


1、聚合物固相鹽水的組成


JUHEWUGUXIANGYANSHUIYOUSANBUFENZUCHENG:QIAODUJI、XIEDAIYEHEZENGNIANJI。SUOYOUZHEXIECHENGFENJUNYINGSHIDUICHANCENGWUSUNHAIDE,QIEDOUSHIGENJUDICENGMINGANXINGYANJIUJIEGUOERXUANZEDE。


篮球比分(1)QIAODUJI:DUIQIAODUJIYOULIANGGEYAOQIU,JIBIXUSHIJIANGJIEXINGDE,KELICHICUNBIXUWANQUANSHIYONGYUSUOYONGDICENG,NENGGOUFENGDUCHANCENGKONGXI。YIBANCHANGYONGDEQIAODUJIYOUSANZHONG:SUANRONGYEDE(RUTANSUANGAI、TANSUANMEI)、SHUIRONGXINGDE(RUYANLI)HEYOURONGXINGDE(YOURONGSHUZHI)。


篮球比分(2)XIEDAIYE:SHUI、YANSHUIHEYOUJIYE,YINGGENJUYAJINGZUOYONGSUOYAOQIUDEMIDU、DICENGWENDUDENGLAIQUEDING。YIBANYONGYANSHUIZUOWEIXIEDAIYEDEQINGKUANGJIAODUO。


(3)ZENGNIANJI:YOUYUHECDUIDICENGJIHUMEIYOUSUNHAI,YINERYIBANCHANGYONGHECJUHEWUZUOWEIZENGNIANJI。YONGSHUIHEYANSHUIZUOXIEDAIYEDE,KEYONGFENMOZHUANGHECJUHEWUTINIAN,YEKEYIYONGHECXUANFUYELAIHUNHE,YIBIMIANCHUXIANTUANZHUANGHEYUYAN,DUIHANYOUXIUHUAGAIHEXIUHUAXINDEGAOMIDUYANSHUI,YIBANYONGHECHUOHUAYETINIAN。


2、聚合物固相鹽水壓井液的作用機理


GUXIANGKELIQIAOJIEZAIDICENGKONGXIRUKOUCHU,ZAIJINGBIXINGCHENGFEICHANGZHIMIDELVBING,CONGERKONGZHILELVYEDEQINRU;JISHIYOUSHAOLIANGLVYEQINRU,QIZHONGRONGJIEDEYANLEIHEJUHEWUDEYIZHIZUOYONGYEKEYIJINYIBUFANGZHINIANTUSHUIHUAPENGZHANG,JICONG“QIAOSAI”HE“YIZHI”LIANGFANGMIANFANGZHIDICENGSUNHAI。ZHEXIEQIAODUGUXIANGKELIYOUKEZAIZUOYEHOUTONGGUOYIXIEFANGFAYUYIJIECHU。


3、聚合物固相鹽水壓井液的種類


ANQIAODUCAILIAOBUTONG,ZHELEIYAJINGYEKEFENSANZHONG,JISUANRONGXINGDE、SHUIRONGXINGDEHEYOURONGXINGDE。YONGZUOYAJINGYE,YIBANSHIYONGQIANLIANGZHONGTIXIJIAODUO。


(1)SUANRONGXINGTIXI


篮球比分XIEDAIYE:DANSHUIHUOYANSHUI,YOUJIYE


QIAODUJI:TANSUANGAI


ZENGNIANJI:FENZHUANGHUOYETAIHECYOURONGXINGZENGNIANJI


SHIYONGDICENG:YONGYUFEISUANMINXINGTANSUANYANDICENG、SHAYANDICENG


(2)SHUIRONGXINGTIXI


XIEDAIYE:NIANXINGBAOHEYANSHUI,YOUJIYE


QIAODUJI:FENXUANDEYANLI


ZENGNIANJI:FENZHUANGHUOYETAIHECYOURONGXINGZENGNIANJI


SHIYONGDICENG:YONGYUSUANMINXINGCHANCENG


(3)YOURONGXINGTIXI


XIEDAIYE:NIANXINGSHUIHUOYANSHUI,JIAQINSHUIXINGBIAOMIANHUOXINGJI


QIAODUJI:YOURONGSHUZHI


ZENGNIANJI:FENZHUANGHEC


SHIYONGDICENG:YONGYUDIYU180℃DENINGXIYOUQIZANG


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