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|  一文了解油氣勘探開發生產全流程

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一文了解油氣勘探開發生產全流程

發布日期:2019-10-30 作者:333 點擊:

一個油田或氣田從勘探、發現,到全方位地進行油氣田的開發與開采,常常要經歷3年、5年,或者10年甚至更長時期。進入2019年以來,國內各地發現新的油氣田捷報頻傳,包括渤海渤中19-6區塊的千億方大氣田(2019年2月)、南海西部樂東深水區塊(2019年9月)、甘肅慶城鄂爾多斯盆地10億噸級大油田(2019年9月)以及四川盆地的長寧——威遠與昭通地區的萬億方頁巖氣大氣區(2019年9月)。

篮球比分SHISHISHANG,ZAIJIEBAOPINCHUANDEBEIHOU,SHIMANCHANGDEPINBOGUOCHENG。YIGEYOUTIANHUOQITIANCONGKANTAN、FAXIAN,DAOQUANFANGWEIDIJINXINGYOUQITIANDEKAIFAYUKAICAI,CHANGCHANGYAOJINGLI3NIAN、5NIAN,HUOZHE10NIANSHENZHIGENGCHANGSHIQI。ERYIGEYOUQITIANZHENGSHIWAISHUYOUQIDEZHUNBEISHIJIANYUECHANG,QIANQIGONGZUOYUEXIZHI,ZHENGSHISHENGCHANHOUDEYOUQITIANKAICAIXIAOLVYUEGAO,ZHENGTIYUNXINGZHILIANGYUEHAO,YOUQITIANDEKAICAIZHOUQIYUECHANG。

篮球比分GUOJISHANGJIN10NIANLAIXINGQIYIGEYOUGUANYOUQITIANFAXIANDAOSHENGCHANDEQUANXINLILUN,CHENGZHIWEI“YOUQITIANSHENGCHANSHENGMINGZHOUQI(Production life cycle of oil and gas fields)”LILUN。ZHEGELILUNGAOSUWOMEN,YIGEYOUQITIANCONGFAXIANDAOSHENGCHANGUOCHENG,YUJIXIEZHIZAOSHENGCHANCHANGYOUBENZHIDEBUTONG。YOUQITIANDECHENGCHANGGUOCHENG,GENGXIANGYIGEZIRANJIE“XIANHUO”DESHENGMINGTI,YOUQIZISHENCHENGCHANG、ZHUANGNIANYUSHUAIJIEDEGUOCHENG。

今天的文章我們將介紹開發一個新的油氣田,需要經歷哪些準備階段,并在其中完成哪些技術與生產程序。      


01. 油氣勘探評價


什么是油田“勘探”?“勘探”就是在某一個地域鉆井找石油,或者在一個初步認定有石油的地域,通過鉆若干口井,以確定有石油的地域面積有多大。

篮球比分SHIYOUGONGZUOZHEYAOJIANGYIGEJINGGUOCHUBUKANTAN、YIJINGZHENGSHIWEIYIGEXINDEYOUQITIANDEQUYU,JIANSHECHENGWEIKEYIZHENGCHANGYULIANXUDUIWAISHUCHUYUANYOUHUOTIANRANQIDEBIAOZHUNYOUQITIAN,SUOZUODEDIYIJIANSHI,JIUSHIDUIZHEKUAIQUYUJINXING“YOUQIKANTANPINGJIA”,JIWEIBIANZHIYOUQITIANKANTANJIHUAYUKAIZHANXIANGGUANZUOYE。

篮球比分ZAIJIANSHEXINYOUQITIANDE“YOUQIKANTANPINGJIA”JIEDUAN,SHIYOUGONGZUOZHEZHUYAOJINXING3GEBUZOU:

一是進行油氣田的勘探決策,包括編制“中長期”油氣勘探規劃;

二是油氣田的勘探方案的科學與工藝研究

三是主持油氣田的勘探作業,例如在新的油氣田地域,為勘探目的而開展鉆井作業與完井作業等。



1

油氣田勘探決策

在石油工作者的油氣田勘探決策階段,有2個重要概念,即“勘探”與“評價”


篮球比分SUOWEIYOUQI“KANTAN”,LEISIYUTONGGUOZHANYIKOUJING,YIZHENGSHIDICENGSHIFOUCUNZAIYOUQIZIYUAN;ERYOUQI“PINGJIA”,ZESHITONGGUOZHANJING,ZHENGSHIZHEYIXINFAXIANDEYOUQITIAN,QIBIANYUANWEIZHIZAIHECHU,ZHEYIXINFAXIANDEYOUQITIANDEQUESHIMIANJIWEIDUOSHAO?


石油工作者進行油氣田勘探決策,主要是通過履行油氣田的“探礦權”管理程序,以及油氣田的“儲量”管理程序,落實油氣田的油氣資源“戰略選區”目標,從而制定年度或者中長期的油氣“勘探”計劃篮球比分,以及油氣“評價”計劃。


1)“探礦權”,即地下油氣資源的開采權

從世界范圍說,除了美國之外,西方國家絕大多數國家的地下地層的油氣資源的“探礦權”,即國家領土內的所有地下資源,無論地面建筑設施的歸屬結構如何,全部屬于國家所有。


篮球比分MEIGUOZESHIZAI“DIMIANTUDI,BAOKUOJIANZHUDEQUANYIGUISHUISUOYOU,ZEDIXIAZIYUANGUISHUISUOYOU”DEFALVYUANZEXIA,ZHIXING“TANKUANGQUAN”XIANGGUANFALV。MEIGUOZHENGFUGUANLI“TANKUANGQUAN”DEBUMENYEBIJIAODUO,DUIMEIGUOBENTUDEYOUQIZIYUANYOU“TANKUANGQUAN”FADINGGUANLIQUANDEZHENGFUBUMEN,BAOKUOMEIGUONEIZHENGBU,NONGYEBU,NENGYUANBU,HUANBAOSHU,GUOFANGBU,MEIGUOGUOJIAJIJINHUIDENG。


ZHONGGUOSHIXINGDEDIXIAZIYUANGUISHUXINGSHI,YUSHIJIESHANGDUOSHUGUOJIAYIZHI。GUOJIADEDIXIADICENGDEYOUQIZIYUANDE“TANKUANGQUAN”,JIGUOJIALINGTUNEIDESUOYOUDIXIAZIYUAN,WULUNDIMIANJIANZHUSHESHIDEGUISHUJIEGOU,QUANBUSHUYUGUOJIASUOYOU。


2)實行油氣田的“儲量”管理

根據《中華人民共和國礦產資源法》第16條,對于石油與天然氣等特種礦產資源的儲量管理,為經過國務院授權的有關部門進行審批。其中儲量管理方面,需要經過國務院礦產儲量審批機構審批。


1999NIANGUOJIA“KUANGCHANZIYUANCHULIANGPINGSHENZHONGXINSHIYOUTIANRANQIZHUANYEBANGONGSHI”,JIANCHENG“YOUQICHULIANGPINGSHENBANGONGSHI”,GUAKAOZHONGGUOSHIYOUTIANRANQIJITUANGONGSI;YEWUSHANGZHIJIESHOUGUOTUZIYUANBUCHULIANGSILINGDAO,ZHUYAOCHENGDANQUANGUOSHIYOU、TIANRANQI,YIJIMEICENGQIDECHULIANGBAOGAODEPINGSHENGONGZUO。


3)油氣資源“戰略選區”。全國“油氣資源戰略選區”是國家財政投入,由國土資源部組織實施的公益性、基礎性、先導性前期的油氣資源戰略調查工作。主要任務是對于陸地和海域油氣資源調查程度低的新區域、新層系,采用新技術與新方法,通過實施“地球物理勘探”,以及鉆探“科學探索井”等實際工作,優選新的地質目標區和勘探接續區,促進國家油氣重大突破和新發現。

在進行新的油氣田建設時,需要借鑒國家“油氣資源戰略選區”項目獲得的技術成果,甚至有可能經過論證獲得國家“油氣資源戰略選區”項目的財政支持。


4)制定年度油氣“勘探”計劃

石油工作者編制年度油氣勘探計劃,主要強化油氣田的油氣資源評價。方法是在勘探技術可行性與經濟評價的基礎上,運用各種方式進行勘探目標的優選。

具體說來,在編制年度油氣勘探計劃過程中,主要精力放在精心優選勘探目標,以及制定勘探方案,以確保實現勘探目標的可實施性與經濟性。此外,還要合理部署本年度的勘探工作量,以及規劃完成勘探儲量的進度,以確保油氣田管理公司的勘探效益的穩步增長。

5)制定年度油氣“評價”計劃

在建設新的油氣田過程中,勘探領域的鉆井類型有2種,一是地質“發現井”,二是地質“評價井”。


地質發現井是在原本不是油氣田的領域,鉆井后發現新的油氣田。而“評價井”則是在“發現井”已經獲得成果基礎上,沿著油氣田可能的邊緣,或者重要部位,鉆若干口“勘探井”,以基本搞清此油氣田的面積與大致儲量。


MEIGUODIZHIDIAOCHAJU(USGS, United States Geological Survey)CONG1879NIANCHENGLIYILAI,FUZEMEIGUOBENTUYOUQIZIYUANPINGJIAGONGZUO。CONGSHANGSHIJI70NIANDAIKAISHI,MEIGUODIZHIDIAOCHAJU (USGS)MEI5NIANHUOZHE6NIANJIUJINXINGYICIQUANGUOXINGYOUQIZIYUANPINGJIAGONGZUO。XIANGGUANJISHUCHENGGUOTIGONGGEIGEYOUQITIANCANKAOHUOSHIYONG。


所以,在美國建設一個新的油氣田,所進行的勘探評價工作量較少,因為相對來說,美國石油與天然氣行業的各類數據開放性程度較高,著手建設新的油氣田時,可以減少部分數據收集工作量。

6)進行勘探井的“井位”論證

勘探井的“井位”論證是一個復雜過程。在新的油氣田建設中,是否能夠獲得優選與合適的勘探井井位,是提高油氣田勘探與開發效率與水平的關鍵因素之一。

JINXINGJINGWEILUNZHENGSHI,XUYAOCANZHAOTONGYIDIQUYIJINGJINXINGDEZHANJINGZUOYE、CEJINGZUOYE、SHIYOUYUSHICAIZUOYE、DIQIUWULIKANTANDECHENGGUOYUSHUJU,YIJISHINEIDEHUAYANYUFENXISHUJUYUZILIAO。HUANYAOKAOLV“JINGWEI”MUBIAOQUDEGOUZAO、CHUCENG、YOUQISHUIDEDICENGFENBUYUYOUQICHANNENGDENGYINSU。


2

油氣田勘探的相關科學與工藝研究


石油工作者要建設一個新的油氣田,需要進行一系列與“勘探”相關的科學研究,以及作業工藝研究。

首先,進行石油地質研究,包括地質學的“盆地”油氣評價,地質學的“區帶(play assessment)”油氣評價,開展地質學的“圈閉”油氣評價,開展地質學的“油藏”評價。

1) 開展地質學的“盆地”油氣評價

篮球比分“PENDI”SHIDIQIUYANSHIQUANBIAOMIAN,XIANGDUICHANGSHIQICHENJIANGDEQUYU,YINZHENGGEDIXINGWAIGUANYUPENZIXIANGSIERDEMING。

2) KAIZHANDIZHIXUEDE“QUANBI”YOUQIPINGJIA

“QUANBI”SHIYIZHONGNENGZUZHIYOUQIJIXUYUNYI,BINGNENGZAIQIZHONGJUJIDECHANGSUO。

3) KAIZHANDIZHIXUEDE“QUDAI(play assessment)”YOUQIPINGJIA

篮球比分“QUDAI”JIEYU“PENDI”YU“QUANBI”ZHIJIANDEDIZHIGOUZAO。

篮球比分4) KAIZHANDIZHIXUEDE“YOUZANG”PINGJIA

篮球比分“YOUZANG”SHIZHIYOUZAIDANYIQUANBIZHONGJUYOUTONGYIYALIXITONGDEJIBENJUJI。


其次,還要開展石油工程研究,具體說來,包括制定物探鉆探方案,進行地震處理解釋,測井解釋,制定試油試采方案等。

1) 制定“物理勘探”的鉆探方案

篮球比分2) JINXINGDIZHENCHULIJIESHI,CEJINGJIESHIDENG

篮球比分3) ZHIDINGSHIYOUSHICAIFANGAN

3

油氣田勘探作業


SHIYOUGONGZUOZHEYAOJIANSHEYIGEXINDEYOUQITIAN,XUYAOZAIXIANCHANGJINXINGXILIESHIDISHIGONGYUZUOYE。


ZHEXIEZUOYE,BAOKUOJINXINGYEWAIDIZHIKANCHA,KAIZHANWUTANZUOYE。ZAIDIZHIYANJIUYUWUTANJIEGUOFENXIDEJICHUSHANG,QUEDINGKANTANJINGYUPINGJIAJINGDEJINGWEI。


篮球比分SHIYOUGONGZUOZHEZAIQUEDINGKANTANJINGYUPINGJIAJINGDEJINGWEIZHIHOU,JINXINGZUOYEXIANCHANGDEZHANJINGZUOYE。ZAIZHANJINGZUOYEQIJIAN,KAIZHANLUJINGZUOYE,CEJINGZUOYE。ZHANJINGZUOYEJIESHUZHIHOU,KAISHISHIYOUZUOYE。CHUCIZHIWAI,HUANYAOJINXINGSHIYANSHINEIGEZHONGDIZHIYANGPINCESHIYUSHIYAN。

1) 野外地質勘察

2) YOUQITIANKANTANDEWUTANZUOYE


“WUTAN”SHIDIQIUWULIKANTANDEJIANCHENG。SHIZHIYONGWULIDEFANGFA,DUIDIQIUJINXINGKANTANDEXUEKE。QIGONGNENGBAOKUOXUNZHAOKUANGZANG,JIBAOKUOYOUQIZANG,MEI,JINSHUDENG。


YIWUTANSHOUDUANYONGYIKANTANYOUQIZANGDEFANGSHI,YOULUHAISANWEIDIZHEN、ERWEIDIZHEN、ERWEIGAOFENBIANDIZHEN、ZHONGCICELIANGDENG。CIWAI,HUANYOUQIANDICENGPOUMIANDIAOCHA、CESAOSHENGNASAOCE、DUOBOSHUSHUISHENCELIANG,YIJIDIXINGCEHUI、DIZHENSHUJUCHULIDENGFUWU。


3) KANTANJINGYUPINGJIAJINGDEJINGWEIBUSHU

4) YOUQITIANKANTANDEZHANJINGZUOYE

5) YOUQITIANKANTANDELUJINGZUOYE

6) YOUQITIANKANTANDECEJINGZUOYE

篮球比分7) YOUQITIANKANTANDESHIYOUZUOYE

8) SHIYANSHINEIDIZHIYANGPINSHIYAN


02.  油田開發建設


什么是油田“開發”?“開發”就是在某一個已經過“勘探”確定有石油的地域,研究打幾口井,在哪些地方打井,或者以哪種方式打井,能夠以最小的成本,將地下石油全部采到地面上來。

石油工作者要將一個經過初步勘探,已經證實為一個新的油氣田的區域,建設成為可以正常與連續對外輸出原油或天然氣的標準油氣田,所做的第二個件事,就是對這塊區域進行“油田開發建設”,詳細說來即為編制油氣田開發計劃與開展相關作業。

ZAIJIANSHEXINYOUQITIANDE“YOUQIKAIFAJIANSHE”JIEDUAN,SHIYOUGONGZUOZHEZHUYAOJINXING3GEBUZOU:

一是進行進行油氣田的開發決策篮球比分,包括編制“中長期”油氣開發規劃等;

二是開發油氣田的開發方案的科學研究

三是主持油氣田的開發生產作業,例如在新的油氣田地域,為開發目的而開展鉆井作業與完井作業等。

1

油氣田開發決策


SHIYOUGONGZUOZHEZAIJIANSHEYIGEXINDEYOUQITIANGUOCHENGZHONG,XUYAOJINXINGCAIKUANGQUANDEGUANLI,YIJIYOUQICENGCHULIANGFUHE。CHUCIZHIWAI,HUANYAOJINXING“ZHONGCHANGQI”YOUQITIANKAIFAGUIHUADEZHIDING,NIANDUCHANNENGJIANSHEJIHUAZHIDING,HUANYAOJINXINGYOUQITIANKAIFAFANGANLUNZHENG。

1) JINXINGCAIKUANGQUANGUANLI

2) JINXINGYOUQICENGCHULIANGFUHE

篮球比分3) ZHIDINGZHONGCHANGQIYOUQITIANKAIFAGUIHUA

4) ZHIDINGNIANDUYOUQICHANNENGJIANSHEJIHUA

5) JINXINGYOUQITIANKAIFAFANGANLUNZHENG


2

油氣田開發的相關科學與工藝研究


篮球比分SHIYOUGONGZUOZHEZAICHOUBEIYIGEXINYOUQITIANDEGUOCHENGZHONG,HUANYAOKAIZHANYIXILIEYUYOUQITIANKAIFAXIANGGUANKEXUEYUGONGYIYANJIU。


例如,開展油氣田的油藏地質研究油氣田的油藏工程研究油氣田的采油工程研究開展油氣田地面工程研究


在此基礎上,石油工作者還要開展油氣田的地質情況解釋油氣藏的評價精細油氣藏的描述工作。最后,啟動重要的油氣田開發方案編制工作。


通常在必要時候,根據油氣田開發的進展情況,還要對已經編制的油氣田開發方案進行微調


1) 開展油氣田的油藏地質研究

篮球比分“YOUZANGDIZHI”YANJIUSHILIYONGDIZHIXUEFANGFA,TANTAO“YOUZANG”XINGCHENGGUOCHENGDEYANJIU。QIYANJIUMUDESHIHUOQUDICENGNEIYOUQIYUNYIYUCUNZHUJILI,WEITIGAOYOUQIKAICAIXIAOLVDAXIAJICHU。


2) 開展油氣田的油藏工程研究

“YOUZANGGONGCHENG”YANJIU,SHILIYONGYOUCENGWULI、YOUQICENGSHENLIULIXUE,TANTAOYOUZANGKAIFAGUOCHENGZHONGYOU、QI、SHUIDEYUNDONGGUILVHEQUTIJILIDEYANJIU。QIYANJIUMUDESHINIDINGXIANGGUANGONGCHENGCUOSHI,YIQIUHELIDITIGAOYOUQIKAICAISUDUYUCAISHOULV。


3) 開展油氣田的采油工程研究

CAIYOUGONGCHENG(oil extraction engineering)SHIYOUTIANKAICAIGUOCHENGZHONG,ZHENDUIDIXIAYOUZANGSUOCAIQUDEGEXIANGGONGCHENGJISHUCUOSHIDEZONGCHENG。DUICAIYOUGONGCHENGYANJIUDEMUDE,SHISHIXIANYOUQIKAICAIDEJIBENGUOCHENG,BINGQUDECAISHOUXIAOLVDEZUIDAHUA。


4) 開展油氣田地面工程研究

YOUQITIANDIMIANGONGCHENGBAOKUOYUSHIYOUYUTIANRANQIKAICAIDEGONGCHENGXIANGMUYUJIXIEZHUANGBEI,LIRU,CAIYOUZHAN,ZHUSHUIZHANDENGGONGCHENGSHESHI,HUOZHEYOUQIFENLIQI,DIANQIANBENG,CHOUYOUBENGDENGJIXIEZHUANGBEI。


YOUQITIANDIMIANGONGCHENGYOU4FANGMIANDEGONGNENG,YISHISHIXIANYOUQIJINGDECHANNENGJIANSHEMUBIAO;ERSHITIXIANYOUQIKAIFAJISHUSHUIPING;SANSHIJILUYOUQIKAIFASHUJU;SISHISHIXIANYOUQICHANPINWAISHU。


5) 地質解釋

SUOWEI“DIZHI”SHIDICENGGOUZAOYUYANBIANLISHIDEZONGCHENG。ERDIZHIJIESHIZESHITONGGUOGEZHONGBUTONGFANGFA,YANJIUYUJIESHIDICENGDEWUZHIZUCHENG、GOUZAOBIANDONG、FAZHANLICHENGDENG。

JINJIUSHIYOUXINGYELAISHUO,DIZHIJIESHIGUANGFANYONGLAIXUNZHAOBUTONGDIZHIJIEGOUZHONGYOUQIZIYUANDESHENGCHENG、YUNYIYUZHUCUNGUILV,CONGERWEITIGAOYOUQIKAICAICHENGGONGLV,YIJITIGAOYOUQICAISHOULVDAXIALILUNJICHU。


6) 油藏評價

篮球比分SUOWEI“YOUZANGPINGJIA”,SHIDUIYOUQIZANGXINGCHENGDEKENENGXING、TEXING、CHULIANG、ZHILIANGDENGGEZHONGXINGTAITEZHENG,SHISHIZUOCHUDINGLIANGDEGAILVFENXI,YIJIJINXINGGONGCHENG、JINGJIFANGMIANDEDINGXINGPINGJIADEGONGZUOYUGUOCHENG。


7) 精細油藏描述

SUOWEI“JINGXIYOUZANGMIAOSHU”,SHILIYONGGEZHONGJINDAIYUXIANDAIDEKEXUEFANGFA,DUIYUYOUQITIANDEDIXIACHUCENG,JINXINGDINGLIANGHUAHEJINGXIHUAYANJIU。


TEBIESHIZHENDUIYOUQITIANKAIFADE“ZHONGHOUQI”JIEDUANDECHUCENGZHUBUKUJIEDETIAOJIAN,JINXINGJINGXIYANJIU,YIWAQIANSHENGYUYOUQIZIYUAN,TIGAOYOUQITIANDEZHENGTIYUZUIZHONGCAISHOULV。


8) 編制油氣田開發方案

“YOUQITIANKAIFAFANGAN”DEZHUYAONEIRONG,SHIZAIZHIDINGDEYOUQITIANDEYOUQIYUNZANGMIANJINEI,ANZHAOYIDINGDEKAIFAJINGWANG、KAIFACHENGXU、KAICAIFANGFA,JIANG(SHI)YOUHUO(TIANRAN)QIYOUDIXIACAICHUDAODIMIANQUANGUOCHENG,HUOZHECHENGWEIKAIFAGONGCHENGDEZONGTIFANGAN。


“YOUQITIANKAIFAFANGAN”SHIYOUQITIANKAIFADEZONGTIGUIHUA,YIJIJUTISHISHIDEQUANMIANXITONGDEJIHUA、BUSHU,TONGSHIYESHIYOUQITIANDEYOUZANGXIANGMUDETOURUKAIFADEJICHUYUANZEHEJINGJIJISUANYIJU。


9) 開發方案微調

篮球比分“YOUQITIANKAIFAFANGAN”WEIDIAO,SHIZAIYOUQITIANKAIFADESHIJIJINCHENGZHONG,GENJUYOUQITIANKAIFAHUODONGDEJISHUYUGONGYIXINXIFANKUI,DUIYUANLAIBIANZHIDE“YOUQITIANKAIFAFANGAN”JINXINGFEIYUANZEXINGXIUGAIYUBUCHONG。


YOUQITIANDESHENGCHANGUOCHENGJIAOWEIFUZA,SHIYOUGONGZUOZHEDUIYUDIXIACHUCENGDERENSHINANYIYICIWANCHENG。SUIZHUKAIFAGUOCHENGZHONGDIXIAYOUZANGZHUANGTAIDEBIANHUA,JIZUOYEZHEDUICHUCENGRENSHICHENGDUDEJIASHEN,NANMIANCHUXIANYUANYOUKAIFAFANGANBUFUHEDIXIACHUCENGZHUANGKUANGDEQINGKUANG。


篮球比分YINERSHIYOUGONGZUOZHEDUIYUYUANYOUYOUQITIANKAIFAFANGANJINXINGGEBIEDIAOZHENGYUBUCHONG,YECHENGWEIKAIFAFANGANDEWEIDIAO,HUOZHE“KAIFADIAOZHENGFANGAN”。


篮球比分“KAIFADIAOZHENGFANGAN”NEIRONGBAOKUODIAOZHENGYUANYIN、DIAOZHENGJICHU、DIAOZHENGYIJUDELUNZHENG,YIJIDIAOZHENGNEIRONG、DIAOZHENGFANGFA、DIAOZHENGJIEGUODECHANSHU。


3

油氣田開發生產



石油工作者在開創一個新油氣田的工作中,還要開展油氣田開發生產活動,即有關油氣田開發的具體施工部署。


ZAIYOUQITIANKAIFASHENGCHANHUODONGZHONG,HUANBAOKUOYOUQITIANKAIFAFANGMIANDEWUTANZUOYE。JISHURENYUANZAIDIZHIYANJIUYUWUTANJIEGUOFENXIDEJICHUSHANG,QUEDINGYOUQITIANXINZENGJIADEZHANJINGJINGWEI。


QUEDINGYOUQITIANKAIFAJINGDEJINGWEIZHIHOU,JINXINGZUOYEXIANCHANGDEZHANJINGZUOYE。CIWAIHUANKAIFALUJINGZUOYE,CEJINGZUOYE。ZAIZHANJINGZUOYEJIESHUZHIHOU,KAISHISHIYOUZUOYE。


篮球比分CIWAI,HUANXUYAOKAIZHANXILIEYOUQITIANKAIFADEDIMIANGONGCHENGJIANSHE。

1) YOUQITIANKAIFADEBUSHU

2) YOUQITIANZHANJINGZUOYE

BAOKUOLUDIYOUTIANYUHAISHANGYOUTIANDEZHANJINGZUOYE。

篮球比分3) YOUQITIANKAIFALUJINGZUOYE

“LUJINGZUOYE”SHIZAIZHANJINGGUOCHENGZHONG,YONGYANKUANGFENXI、DIQIUWULI、DIQIUHUAXUEDENGFANGFA,GUANCHA、CAIJI、SHOUJI、JILU、FENXISUIZHANGUOCHENGZHONGDEGUTI、YETI、QITIDENGJINGYANFANCHUWUXINXI,YICIJIANLILUJINGDIZHIPOUMIAN、FAXIANYOUQIXIANSHI、PINGJIAYOUQICENG,BINGWEISHIYOUGONGCHENGJIANSHETIGONGZHANJINGXINXIFUWU。

4) YOUQITIANKAIFACEJINGZUOYE

篮球比分5) YOUQITIANKAIFAWANJINGZUOYE

篮球比分6) YOUQITIANKAIFASHIYOUZUOYE

7) YOUQITIANKAIFAZHONGXINJINGTOUCHAN

8) YOUQITIANKAIFADEDIMIANGONGCHENGJIANSHE


03. 油氣生產作業


什么是油氣田“生產”?“生產”就是在某一個已經過“勘探”確定有石油,并且經過制定“開發”方案確定如何獲取石油的地域,研究以什么速度“采出”石油,從而提高此油田的最終石油采收率,或者說最終盡可能多地將地下石油“采到”地面上來


篮球比分SHIYOUGONGZUOZHEYAOJIANGYIGEJINGGUOCHUBUKANTAN,YIJINGZHENGSHIWEIYIGEXINDEYOUQITIANDEQUYU,JIANSHECHENGWEIKEYIZHENGCHANGYULIANXUDUIWAISHUCHUYUANYOUHUOTIANRANQIDEBIAOZHUNYOUQITIAN,SUOZUODEDISANGEJIANSHI,JIUSHIDUIZHEKUAIQUYUJINXING“YOUQISHENGCHANZUOYE”,XIANGXISHUOLAIJIWEIBIANZHIYOUQISHENGCHANZUOYEJIHUAYUKAIZHANXIANGGUANZUOYE。


ZAIJIANSHEXINYOUQITIANDEYOUQISHENGCHANZUOYEJIEDUAN,SHIYOUGONGZUOZHEZHUYAOJINXING3GEBUZOU:

一是進行油氣田生產決策篮球比分,包括編制“中長期”油氣勘探規劃;

二是開展油氣田的生產措施科學研究

三是主持油氣田的油氣生產運營

1

油氣田生產決策


篮球比分SHIYOUGONGZUOZHEZAIJIANSHEYIGEXINYOUQITIANDEGONGZUOZHONG,HUANYAOKAIZHANYOUQITIANSHENGCHANHUODONG,JITICHUYOUGUANYOUQITIANSHENGCHANDEJUTIZUOYECUOSHIJUECE。


ZAIYOUQITIANZHIDINGSHENGCHANFANGSHIYUSHENGCHANCUOSHIHUODONGZHONG,SHIYOUGONGZUOZHEYAOZHIDINGYOUQITIANSHENGCHANSHENGMINGZHOUQIZHANLVE,ZUOCHUYOUQITIANJIEDUANXINGYUNYINGJIHUA,TICHUYOUQITIANNIANDUSHENGCHANJIHUA,QIZHONGBAOKUOPEICHAN、PEIZHUDENGJUTIZHIBIAOYUZUOYEGONGYI。


篮球比分CIWAI,SHIYOUGONGZUOZHEHUANYAOKAIZHANYOUQITIANKAIFADIAOZHENGLUNZHENG,YOUQITIANYOUZANGDIZHIYANJIU,YOUQITIANYOUZANGGONGCHENGYANJIU,YOUQITIANCAIYOUGONGYIYANJIU,YIJIYOUQITIANDEZENGCHANCUOSHIYANJIUDENG。


1) YOUQITIANSHENGCHANSHENGMINGZHOUQIZHANLVE

“SHENGCHANSHENGMINGZHOUQI(Production life cycle)”GAINIANSHI1974NIANYINGGUOHUANGJIACELIANGSHIXUEHUIZHUANJIAA. GordonTICHU,2011NIANMEIGUOQUANGUOSHIYOUWEIYUANHUI (NPC, The National Petroleum Council)FABUYOUGUAN“YOUQITIANSHENGCHANSHENGMINGZHOUQI(Production life cycle of oil and gas fields)”DEZHUANMENYANJIUBAOGAO。


YINGMEIZHUANJIAYANJIUZHONGFAXIAN,YOUQITIANSHENGCHANGUOCHENGYUZHIZAOGONGCHANGCHEJIANDESHENGCHANDEBUTONGBIAOXIANZAI:

篮球比分① YOUQITIANSHENGCHANDEDUIXIANGSHIBUKEZAISHENGDEDIXIAZIYUAN;

篮球比分② YOUQITIANSHIZAIDIMIANSHISHIKAICAIZUOYE,ERYOUQIZANGBENSHENDEYALIHESHENLIUSUDUSHIZHONGBIANHUAYUSHUAIJIANZHU;

篮球比分③ YOUQITIANYAOZENGJIAXINCHANNENG,MIBUCHANLIANGDEZIRANDIJIANYIBAOCHIWENCHAN,JIYONG“KUODAZAISHENGCHAN”DEBANFAQUWEICHI“JIANDANZAISHENGCHAN”;

篮球比分④ YOUQITIANDECHENGBENYUELAIYUEGAO,ZUIZHONGDADAOZUOYEZHECHENGSHOUDEJINGJIJIXIAN。CISHIYOUQITIANSHANGYOUXIANGDANGBUFENYOUQIWEIBEICAICHU,RANERCIYOUQITIANYEBIXUGUANBI。


篮球比分ZHEYIGUOCHENGLEISIYUSHENGWUDESHENGMINGZHOUQI,GUCHENGWEIYOUQITIANDESHENGMINGQI。


YOUQITIANDE“SHENGMINGQI”FENWEI:KUAISUZENGCHANGQI,XIANGDUIWENCHANQI,KUAISUXIAJIANGQI,SHUAIWANGQI。YOUQITIANZUOYEZHEKEYICAIQUXIANGYINGCUOSHI,GAIBIANYOUQITIANMOUYIQICHANLIANGBIANHUASUDU,YIYANCHANGHUOSUODUANYOUQITIANSHENGCUNSHIJIAN。DANBUNENGGAIBIANQISHENGMINGFAZHANGUOCHENGDEZONGQUSHI。


篮球比分TICHUYOUQITIANSHENGMINGZHOUQILILUNYIYI,SHIDIANDINGYOUQITIANKAIFAFANGANDEBIANZHIJICHU,YIJITIGONGYOUQITIANCHANLIANGYUCEDEYIJU。

2) YOUQITIANJIEDUANXINGYUNYINGJIHUA

3) YOUQITIANNIANDUSHENGCHANJIHUA(PEICHAN、PEIZHUDENG)

 “PEICHAN”SHI“PEIZHIDIXIACHUCENGDEYOUQICHANNENG”DEJIANCHENG,ER“PEIZHU”ZESHI“PEIZHIDIXIACHUCENGDEZHUSHUINENGLIANG”DEJIANCHENG。

SUOWEIYOUQITIANDENIANDU“PEICHAN”,JIUSHIYOUHUAMOUYOUZANGDEWEILAIYINIANYOUQICHANCHUNENGLI。

SUOWEIYOUQITIANDENIANDU“PEIZHU”,JIUSHIWEISHIXIAN,PEIZHUSHIWEISHIPEIYOUQITIANDENIANDU“PEICHAN”XIAOGUO,ERSHISHIDEYOUQITIANDEDIXIACHUCENGDEZHUSHUINENGLIANGDEPEIZHI。

4) YOUQITIANKAIFADIAOZHENGLUNZHENG

5) YOUQITIANYOUZANGDIZHIYANJIU

6) YOUQITIANYOUZANGGONGCHENGYANJIU

7) YOUQITIANCAIYOUGONGYIYANJIU

8) ZENGCHANCUOSHIYANJIU

號:oilsns

2

油氣田生產的相關科學與工藝研究

篮球比分SHIYOUGONGZUOZHEZAICHUANGJIANYIGEXINYOUQITIANDEGUOCHENGZHONG,HUANYAOKAIZHANYIXILIEYUYOUQITIANSHENGCHANXIANGGUANKEXUEYUGONGYIYANJIU。LIRU,YOUQITIANSHENGCHANZHONGDEDONGTAIFENXI,YOUQITIANSHENGCHANZHONGDEJINGXIYOUZANGMIAOSHU,YOUQITIANKAIFAXIAOGUOPINGJIA,YOUQITIANZENGCHANCUOSHI,YIJIYOUQITIANDIAOZHENGFANGAN。


1) YOUQITIANDONGTAIFENXI

“YOUQITIANDONGTAIFENXI”,SHILIYONGYOUQITIANSHENGCHANSHUJUHEGEZHONGJIANCEFANGFA,JIANGCAIJIDAODEDIXIAYOUZANGZILIAOJINXINGFENXI。YONGYIYANJIUDICENGSHUIYUNDONGGUILV,YIJIFAZHANBIANHUA。CHUCIZHIWAI,HUANYONGYIJIANYANKAIFAFANGANJIQIYOUGUANCUOSHIKEXINGXING,BINGQIEYUCEYOUQITIANKAIFAXIAOGUO。


YOUQITIANDONGTAIFENXI,BAOKUO“KAIFADONGTAIFENXI”,“SHENGCHANDONGTAIFENXI”。YOUQITIAN“SHENGCHANDONGTAIFENXI”,YECHENG“DANJINGFENXI”,BAOKUO“YOUQIJINGDONGTAIFENXI”HE“ZHUSHUIJINGDONGTAIFENXI”。

篮球比分2) YOUQITIANJINGXIYOUZANGMIAOSHU

篮球比分3) YOUQITIANKAIFAXIAOGUOPINGJIA

4) YOUQITIANZENGCHANCUOSHI

篮球比分“YOUQITIANZENGCHANCUOSHI”YOUYALIE、SUANHUA、YOUJINGJIEDU、YOUJINGHUAXUEDUSHUI、ZHUSHUIJINGDIAOQUDIAOPOU、ZHUSHUIJINGJIANGYAZENGZHU、ZHUSHUIJINGJIDUDENG。

5) YOUQITIANDIAOZHENGFANGAN


3

油氣田生產運營

SHIYOUGONGZUOZHEZAIJIANSHEYIGEXINDEYOUQITIANSHI,HUANYAOCONGSHIXILIEYOUQITIANDESHENGCHANYUNYINGGONGZUO。


篮球比分JUTILAISHUO,BAOKUOGEZHONGYUYOUQITIANSHENGCHANXIANGGUANDEGUANLI,ZUOYEYUYOUQICAISHOUCUOSHI。LIRU,YOUQITIANSHENGCHANYUNXINGYUDIAODUZHIHUI,YOUQITIANDECHANLIANGGUANLI,YOUQITIANDECAIYOUGONGYIGUANLI,YOUQITIANZUOYECUOSHIGUANLI,YOUQITIANDE“SANCICAIYOU”GUANLI,YOUQITIANDESHENGCHANCESHI,YIJIYOUQITIANDESHIYANSHIHUAYAN。


1) YOUQITIANSHENGCHANYUNXINGYUDIAODUZHIHUI

2) YOUQITIANCHANLIANGGUANLI

篮球比分3) YOUQITIANCAIYOUGONGYIGUANLI

4) YOUQITIANZUOYECUOSHIGUANLI

5) YOUQITIAN“SANCICAIYOU”GUANLI

篮球比分YOUQITIANDE“SANCICAIYOU”SHILIYONGWULI、HUAXUEHESHENGWUDENGXINJISHUTIGAOZUIZHONGYUANYOUCAISHOULVDEZHONGYAOYOUQIKAICAIJISHU。

篮球比分ZHUYAONEIRONGSHILIYONGGEZHONGFANGSHIYUJIEZHI,CONGDIXIACHUCENGQUYOUDAODIMIANSHANGLAI,YITIGAOYOUQITIANCHANLIANG。ZHUYAOQUTILEIXING,YOUJINGLEIQU、HUAXUEQU、REQU、CO2QUDENG。

6) YOUQITIANSHENGCHANCESHI

篮球比分“YOUQITIANSHENGCHANCESHI”SHIDONGTAIJIANCEYOUQITIANDIXIACHUCENGDEZHONGYAOSHOUDUAN。SHISHENRURENSHIYUZHENGQUEPINGJIAYOUQIZANGDEJIBENFANGFAZHIYI。

篮球比分“YOUQITIANSHENGCHANCESHI”ZHUYAOYOU2DALEI,SHENGCHANCEJINGYUSHENGCHANCESHI。QIZHONGSHENGCHANCEJING,LIRUYOUQIJINGDECHANCHUYUZHURUCEJING,BAOHEDUCEJINGDENG;SHENGCHANCESHI,LIRUYALICESHIDENG。

7) YOUQITIANSHIYANSHIHUAYAN


04. 啟示


進入2019年以來,國內各地發現新的油氣田捷報頻傳,國內民眾被我國的陸海石油行業的新成就所鼓舞,更加增強建設國家,再創新的業績的信心。然而,通過我們回顧全世界油氣行業開發油氣田的全套程序,可以得到以下啟示。


(1) 勘探與開發一個完整成熟的油氣田,是一項長期、艱苦與細致的工作開發一個油氣田,需要千萬與油氣勘探開發有關的專業人士默默與耐心工作,才可能完成。


(2)勘探與開發一個完整成熟的油氣田,必須遵守其獨特運營規律。一個完整成熟的油氣田,具有類似于自然界個體生命周期那樣的演變歷程,而與多數工業界的制造工廠與車間進化歷程不相同。即世界上各處的油氣田具有單獨特殊的“生產生命周期”。這是1970年代由英國專家提出,2011年由美國石油全國委員會(NPC)提出專門報告,近年來才逐漸引起我國石油行業工作者重視的“油氣田生命周期”理論。


這種理論指出,所發現的油氣田的生命周期,與世界上的生物生命周期有些類似,而不同于多數機械設備制造工廠的“建設與運營周期”。


BIRU,MOUGUOJIAZAIMOUDIJIANSHEYIGENIANCHAN30LIANGTAIQICHEDEGONGCHANG,JINIANHOUZAILINGYICHUJIANSHENIANCHAN50LIANGTAIQICHEDEGONGCHANG;ZHEYANG,CIGUOJIADEZONGDEQICHESHENGCHANNENGLIWEI80WANTAI。


ERMOUGUOYUANLAIFAXIANYIGENIANCHAN1YIDUNYOUTIAN,HOULAIYOUFAXIANYICHUNIANCHAN3000WANDUNYOUTIAN,QUEBUNENGSHUOZHEGEGUOJIANIANCHANYUANYOUNENGLIWEI1.3YIDUN。YINWEIYUANYOUDELAOYOUTIANYOUCHANLIANGDIJIAN。YEXUXINFAXIANDE3000WANDUNYOUTIAN,ZHENGHAOJIANGLAOYOUTIANDECHANLIANGDIJIANDIXIAOLE。SUOYI,DUIYUYOUQITIANKAIFALAISHUO,BUNENGSHIYONGJIANDANJIAJIANFAPINGGUYEJI,ERYAOSHIXING“JUTIWENTI,JUTIFENXI”。


(3)勘探與開發一個完整成熟的油氣田,要有專業齊全,分工精細,服務到位的油田服務隊伍。開發一個大中型陸地或海上油田,需要近100個專業的油田服務隊伍協同合作,共同努力,才能最終達到經濟與技術工藝目標,為人類社會獲得利益。所以,開發一個大中型油氣田,實際上是動員全社會力量,運用全人類的智慧,來向大自然索要財富。團結與協作,奮斗與奉獻,則是建設與開發一個完整成熟的油氣田主要途徑之一。


WOMENJIANXIN,GUONEISHIYOUGONGZUOZHEJIANGJIXUFAHUISHISHIQIUSHI,YONGYUTANSUO,JIANKUFENDOU,JIWANGKAILAIDECHUANGXINJINGSHEN,CHONGFENLIYONGDANGJINSHIJIEXIANJINKEXUEYUGONGYIJISHU,WEIZUGUODEJINGJIFANRONGYUFAZHAN,XUNZHAOGENGDUODEYOUQITIAN,GONGXIANGENGDUONENGYUAN。










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